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Investigative Radiology - Current Issue

Investigative Radiology - Current Issue
  1. Interleaved Mapping of Temperature and Longitudinal Relaxation Rate to Monitor Drug Delivery During Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Hyperthermia
    imageObjectives: Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a method to heat lesions noninvasively to a stable, elevated temperature and a well-suited method to induce local hyperthermia (41°C–43°C) in deep-seated tissues. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging provides therapy planning on anatomical images and offers temperature feedback based on near–real-time MR thermometry. Although constant acquisition of MR thermometry data is crucial to ensure prolonged hyperthermia, it limits the freedom to perform measurements of other MR parameters, which are of interest during hyperthermia treatments. In image-guided drug delivery applications, co-encapsulation of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a drug inside temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) allows to visualize hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery through changes of the longitudinal relaxation rate R1. While the drug accumulates in the heated tumor tissue, R1 changes can be used for an estimate of the tumor drug concentration. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that interleaved MR sequences are able to monitor temperature with an adequate temporal resolution and could give a reasonable estimate of the achieved tumor drug concentration through R1 changes. To this aim, in vitro validation tests and an in vivo proof-of-concept study were performed. Materials and Methods: All experiments were performed on a clinical 3-T MR-HIFU system adapted with a preclinical setup. The validity of the R1 values and the temperature maps stability were evaluated in phantom experiments and in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. In vivo experiments were performed on rats bearing a 9L glioma tumor on their hind limb. All animals (n = 4 HIFU-treated, n = 4 no HIFU) were injected intravenously with TSLs co-encapsulating doxorubicin and gadoteridol as contrast agent. The TSL injection was followed by either 2 times 15 minutes of MR-HIFU–induced hyperthermia or a sham treatment. R1 maps were acquired before, during, and after sonication, using a single slice Inversion Recovery Look-Locker (IR-LL) sequence (field of view [FOV], 50 × 69 mm2; in-plane resolution, 0.52 × 0.71 mm2; slice thickness, 3 mm; 23 phases of 130 milliseconds; 1 full R1 map every 2 minutes). The R1 maps acquired during treatment were interleaved with 2 perpendicular proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) MR thermometry slices (dynamic repetition time, 8.6 seconds; FOV, 250 × 250 mm2; 1.4 × 1.4 mm2 in-plane resolution; 4 mm slice thickness). Tumor doxorubicin concentrations were determined fluorometrically. Results: In vitro results showed a slight but consistent overestimation of the measured R1 values compared with calibrated R1 values, regardless whether the R1 was acquired with noninterleaved IR-LL or interleaved. The average treatment cell temperature had a slightly higher temporal standard deviation for the interleaved PRFS sequence compared with the noninterleaved PRFS sequence (0.186°C vs 0.101°C, respectively). The prolonged time in between temperature maps due to the interleaved IR-LL sequence did not degrade the temperature stability during MR-HIFU treatment (Taverage = 40.9°C ± 0.3°C). Upon heat treatment, some tumors showed an R1 increase in a large part of the tumor while other tumors hardly showed any ΔR1. The tumor doxorubicin concentration showed a linear correlation with the average ΔR1 during both sonications (n = 8, R2adj = 0.933), which was higher than for the ΔR1 measured after tumor cooldown (averaged for both sonications, n = 8, R2adj = 0.877). Conclusions: The new approach of interleaving different MR sequences was applied to simultaneously acquire R1 maps and PRFS thermometry scans during a feedback-controlled MR-HIFU–induced hyperthermia treatment. Interleaved acquisition did not compromise speed or accuracy of each scan. The ΔR1 acquired during treatment was used to visualize and quantify hyperthermia-triggered release of gadoteridol from TSLs and better reflected the intratumoral doxorubicin concentrations than the ΔR1 measured after cooldown of the tumor, exemplifying the benefit of interleaving R1 maps with temperature maps during drug delivery. Our study serves as an example for interleaved MR acquisition schemes, which introduce a higher flexibility in speed, sequence optimization, and timing.



  2. Compressed Sensing for Breast MRI: Resolving the Trade-Off Between Spatial and Temporal Resolution
    imageObjective: Ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast enables assessment of the contrast inflow dynamics while providing images with diagnostic spatial resolution. However, the slice thickness of common ultrafast techniques still prevents multiplanar reconstruction. In addition, some temporal blurring of the enhancement characteristics occurs in case view-sharing is used. We evaluate a prototype compressed-sensing volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (CS-VIBE) sequence for ultrafast breast MRI that improves through plane spatial resolution and avoids temporal blurring while maintaining an ultrafast temporal resolution (less than 5 seconds per volume). Image quality (IQ) of the new sequence is compared with an ultrafast view-sharing sequence (time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories [TWIST]), and assessment of lesion morphology is compared with a regular T1-weighted 3D Dixon sequence (VIBE-DIXON) with an acquisition time of 91 seconds. Materials and Methods: From April 2016 to October 2016, 30 women were scanned with the CS-VIBE sequence, replacing the routine ultrafast TWIST sequence in a hybrid breast MRI protocol. The need for informed consent was waived. All MRI scans were performed on a 3T MAGNETOM Skyra system (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a 16-channel bilateral breast coil. Two reader studies were conducted involving 5 readers. In the first study, overall IQ of CS-VIBE and TWIST in the axial plane was independently rated for 23 women for whom prior MRI examinations with TWIST were available. In addition, the presence of several types of artifacts was rated on a 5-point scale. The second study was conducted in women (n = 16) with lesions. In total, characteristics of 31 lesions (5 malignant and 26 benign) were described independently for CS-VIBE and VIBE-DIXON, according to the BI-RADS MRI-lexicon. In addition, a lesion conspicuity score was given. Results: Using CS-VIBE, a much higher through-plane spatial resolution was achieved in the same acquisition time as with TWIST, without affecting in-plane IQ (P = 0.260). Time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories showed slightly more motion artifacts and infolding and ghosting artifacts compared with CS-VIBE, whereas CS-VIBE showed more breathing and pulsation artifacts. For morphologic assessment, intrareader agreement between CS-VIBE and the more time-consuming VIBE-DIXON was slight to almost perfect, and generally higher than interreader agreement. Mean sensitivity (84.0% and 92.0% for CS-VIBE and VIBE-DIXON, P = 0.500) and specificity (60.0% and 55.4% for CS-VIBE and VIBE-DIXON, P = 0.327) were comparable for both sequences. Conclusions: Compressed-sensing volume-interpolated breath-hold examination allows an increase of the through-plane spatial resolution of ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging compared with TWIST at a comparable in-plane IQ. Morphological assessment of lesions using CS-VIBE is comparable to VIBE-DIXON, which takes 18 times longer. Consequently, CS-VIBE enables 3D evaluation of breast lesions in ultrafast breast MRI.



  3. T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application in Magnetic Resonance–Guided Radiotherapy Treatment Planning
    imageObjectives: The aim of this study was to develop and verify a method to obtain good temporal resolution T2-weighted 4-dimensional (4D-T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using motion information from T1-weighted 4D (4D-T1w) MRI, to support treatment planning in MR-guided radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with primary non–small cell lung cancer were scanned at 1.5 T axially with a volumetric T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence gated to exhalation and a volumetric T1-weighted stack-of-stars spoiled gradient echo sequence with golden angle spacing acquired in free breathing. From the latter, 20 respiratory phases were reconstructed using the recently developed 4D joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm based on the self-gating signal obtained from the k-space center. Motion vector fields describing the respiratory cycle were obtained by deformable image registration between the respiratory phases and projected onto the T2-weighted image volume. The resulting 4D-T2w volumes were verified against the 4D-T1w volumes: an edge-detection method was used to measure the diaphragm positions; the locations of anatomical landmarks delineated by a radiation oncologist were compared and normalized mutual information was calculated to evaluate volumetric image similarity. Results: High-resolution 4D-T2w MRI was obtained. Respiratory motion was preserved on calculated 4D-T2w MRI, with median diaphragm positions being consistent with less than 6.6 mm (2 voxels) for all patients and less than 3.3 mm (1 voxel) for 9 of 10 patients. Geometrical positions were coherent between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI as Euclidean distances between all corresponding anatomical landmarks agreed to within 7.6 mm (Euclidean distance of 2 voxels) and were below 3.8 mm (Euclidean distance of 1 voxel) for 355 of 470 pairs of anatomical landmarks. Volumetric image similarity was commensurate between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI, as mean percentage differences in normalized mutual information (calculated over all respiratory phases and patients), between corresponding respiratory phases of 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI and the tie-phase of 4D-T1w and 3-dimensional T2w MRI, were consistent to 0.41% ± 0.37%. Four-dimensional T2w MRI displayed tumor extent, structure, and position more clearly than corresponding 4D-T1w MRI, especially when mobile tumor sites were adjacent to organs at risk. Conclusions: A methodology to obtain 4D-T2w MRI that retrospectively applies the motion information from 4D-T1w MRI to 3-dimensional T2w MRI was developed and verified. Four-dimensional T2w MRI can assist clinicians in delineating mobile lesions that are difficult to define on 4D-T1w MRI, because of poor tumor-tissue contrast.



  4. Comprehensive Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast With Fat/Water Separation and High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using Radial Sampling, Compressed Sensing, and Parallel Imaging
    imageObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Dixon radial volumetric encoding (Dixon-RAVE) for comprehensive dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast using a combination of radial sampling, model-based fat/water separation, compressed sensing, and parallel imaging. Materials and Methods: In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant prospective study, 24 consecutive patients underwent bilateral breast MRI, including both conventional fat-suppressed and non–fat-suppressed precontrast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE). Afterward, 1 continuous Dixon-RAVE scan was performed with the proposed approach while the contrast agent was injected. This scan was immediately followed by the acquisition of 4 conventional fat-saturated VIBE scans. From the comprehensive Dixon-RAVE data set, different image contrasts were reconstructed that are comparable to the separate conventional VIBE scans. Two radiologists independently rated image quality, conspicuity of fibroglandular tissue from fat (FG), and degree of fat suppression (FS) on a 5-point Likert-type scale for the following 3 comparisons: precontrast fat-suppressed (pre-FS), precontrast non–fat-suppressed (pre-NFS), and dynamic fat-suppressed (dyn-FS) images. Results: When scores were averaged over readers, Dixon-RAVE achieved significantly higher (P < 0.001) degree of fat suppression compared with VIBE, for both pre-FS (4.25 vs 3.67) and dyn-FS (4.10 vs 3.46) images. Although Dixon-RAVE had lower image quality score compared with VIBE for the pre-FS (3.56 vs 3.67, P = 0.490), the pre-NFS (3.54 vs 3.88, P = 0.009), and the dyn-FS images (3.06 vs 3.67, P < 0.001), acceptable or better diagnostic quality was achieved (score ≥ 3). The FG score for Dixon-RAVE in comparison to VIBE was significantly higher for the pre-FS image (4.23 vs 3.85, P = 0.044), lower for the pre-NFS image (3.98 vs 4.25, P = 0.054), and higher for the dynamic fat-suppressed image (3.90 vs 3.85, P = 0.845). Conclusions: Dixon-RAVE can serve as a one-stop-shop approach for comprehensive T1-weighted breast MRI with diagnostic image quality, high spatiotemporal resolution, reduced overall scan time, and improved fat suppression compared with conventional imaging.



  5. High-Quality 3-Dimensional 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of the Prostate Without Endorectal Receive Coil Using A Semi-LASER Sequence
    imageObjectives: Inclusion of 3-dimensional 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-1H-MRSI) in routine multiparametric MRI of the prostate requires good quality spectra and easy interpretable metabolite maps of the whole organ obtained without endorectal coil in clinically feasible acquisition times. We evaluated if a semi-LASER pulse sequence with gradient offset independent adiabaticity refocusing pulses (GOIA-sLASER) for volume selection can meet these requirements. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with suspicion of prostate cancer and 1 patient known to have prostate cancer were examined at 3 T with a multichannel body-receive coil. A 3D-1H-MRSI sequence with GOIA-sLASER volume selection (echo time, 88 milliseconds) was added to a routine clinical multiparametric MRI examination of these patients. Repetition times from 630 to 1000 milliseconds and effective voxel sizes of approximately 0.9 and 0.6 cm3 were tested. Spectral components were quantified by LCModel software for quality assessment and to construct choline and citrate maps. Results: Three-dimensional MRSI of the prostate was successfully performed in all patients in measurement times of 5 to 10 minutes. Analysis of the multiparametric MRI examination or of biopsies did not reveal malignant tissue in the prostate of the 13 patients. In 1404 evaluated voxels acquired from 13 patients, the citrate resonance could be fitted with a high reliability (Cramér-Rao lower bound <30%), 100% for 7 × 7 × 7-mm3 voxels and 96 ± 7 in 6 × 6 × 6-mm3 voxels. The percentage of 7 × 7 × 7-mm3 voxels in which the choline signal was fitted with Cramér-Rao lower bound of less than 30% was approximately 50% at a TR of 630 milliseconds and increased to more than 80% for TRs of 800 milliseconds and above. In the patient with prostate cancer, choline was detectable throughout the prostate in spectra recorded at a TR of 700 milliseconds. The homogeneous B1- field over the prostate of the receive coil enabled the generation of whole organ metabolite maps, revealing choline and citrate variations between areas with normal prostate tissue, seminal vesicles, proliferative benign prostatic hyperplasia, and tumor. Conclusions: The good signal-to-noise ratio and low chemical shift artifacts of GOIA-sLASER at an echo time of 88 milliseconds enable acquisition of high-quality 3D-1H-MRSI of the prostate without endorectal coil in less than 10 minutes. This facilitates reconstruction of easy interpretable, quantitative metabolite maps for routine clinical applications of prostate MRSI.


  6. Clinical Robustness of Accelerated and Optimized Abdominal Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
    imageObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the robustness of an accelerated and optimized diffusion-weighted sequence in clinical routine abdominal imaging using the simultaneous multislice (SMS) technique for scan time reduction and 3-dimensional (3D) diagonal diffusion mode to optimize image quality. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty consecutive patients received clinically indicated magnetic resonance imaging for abdominal imaging including an optimized SMS diffusion-weighted sequence (DWIOPT: diffusion mode 3D diagonal; SMS factor 2; scan time 1:44 minutes). A subgroup of 41 patients additionally received a standard diffusion-weighted sequence as reference (DWISTD: diffusion mode 4-scan trace; scan time 2:35 minutes). Qualitative and quantitative image parameters of DWISTD and DWIOPT were assessed and compared interindividually within the subgroup using dedicated statistics. Results: In all patients, image quality ratings in DWIOPT were rated very high (overall image quality, 4.6 [4–5]; contour sharpness of right/left hepatic lobe, 4.6 [4–5]/4.4 [4–5]; and lesion conspicuity, 4.5 [4.5–5]). Interindividually, DWIOPT proved superior to DWISTD in comparison of overall image quality (4.6 [4.6–4.7] vs 4.2 [4.1–4.2]; P = 0.025) and contour sharpness of the right/left hepatic lobe (4.6 [4.5–4.7]/4.3 [4.0–4.3] vs 4.3 [4.1–43]/4.0[3.0–4.0]; each P = 0.045); lesion conspicuity was comparable in DWIOPT and DWISTD (4.0 [4.8–5] vs 4.4 [4–5]; P = 0.461), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values showed no statistically significant difference (ADCOPT vs ADCSTD: right hepatic lobe, P = 0.084; kidney, P = 0.445). Interreader agreement was substantial with a kappa value of 0.78 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted imaging of the abdomen can be considerably accelerated and optimized integrating the SMS technique and a 3D diagonal diffusion mode. In a large patient cohort, this approach proved of superior image quality while maintaining similar ADC values compared with standard DWI. This technique seems applicable for daily clinical routine.



  7. Clinical Feasibility of 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography Using Compressed Sensing: Comparison of Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance
    imageObjective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of fast 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using compressed sensing (CS) in comparison with conventional navigator-triggered 3D-MRCP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 84 patients (male-to-female ratio, 41:43; mean age, 47.3 ± 18.8 years) who underwent conventional 3D navigator-triggered T2-weighted MRCP using sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts (SPACE) and fast 3D MRCP using SPACE with high undersampling combined with CS reconstruction (CS SPACE; CS-MRCP) on a 3 T scanner were included. Among them, 28 patients additionally underwent 3D breath-hold CS-MRCP (BH-CS-MRCP) with 5.7% k-space sampling. Three board-certified radiologists then independently reviewed the examinations for bile duct and pancreatic duct visualization and overall image quality on a 5-point scale, and image sharpness and background suppression on a 4-point scale, with the higher score indicating better image quality. In addition, diagnostic performance for the detection of anatomic variation and diseases of the bile duct, and pancreatic disease were assessed on a per-patient basis in the subgroup of 28 patients who underwent conventional MRCP, CS-MRCP, and BH-CS-MRCP in the same manner. Results: Mean acquisition times of conventional MRCP, CS-MRCP, and BH-CS-MRCP were 7 minutes (419.7 seconds), 3 minutes 47 seconds (227.0 seconds), and 16 seconds, respectively (P < 0.0001, in all comparisons). In all patients, CS-MRCP showed better image sharpness (3.54 ± 0.60 vs 3.37 ± 0.75, P = 0.04) and visualization of the common bile duct (4.55 ± 0.60 vs 4.39 ± 0.78, P = 0.034) and pancreatic duct (3.47 ± 1.22 vs 3.26 ± 1.32, P = 0.025), but lower background suppression (3.00 ± 0.54 vs 3.37 ± 0.58, P < 0.001) than conventional MRCP. Overall image quality was not significantly different between the 2 examinations (3.51 ± 0.95 vs 3.47 ± 1.09, P = 0.75). The number of indeterminate MRCP examinations for the anatomic variation and disease of the bile duct significantly decreased on CS-MRCP, from 16.7%–22.6% to 9.5%–11.9% and 8.4%–15.6% to 3.6%–8.4% in all readers (P = 0.003–0.03). In the 28 patients who underwent BH-CS-MRCP, better image quality was demonstrated than with conventional MRCP and CS-MRCP (4.10 ± 0.84 vs 3.44 ± 1.21 vs 3.50 ± 1.11, respectively, P = 0.002, 0.001). Sensitivities for detecting bile duct disease was 88.9% to 100% on both BH-CS-MRCP and conventional MRCP (P > 0.05), and for detecting pancreatic disease was 66.7% to 83.3% on BH-CS-MRCP and 50.0% to 72.2% on conventional MRCP (P = 0.002 in reader 1, 0.06–0.47 in readers 2–3). Conclusions: Compressed sensing MRCP using incoherent undersampling combined with CS reconstruction provided comparable image quality to conventional MRCP while reducing the acquisition time to within a single breath-hold (16 seconds).



  8. Clinical Feasibility of Free-Breathing Dynamic T1-Weighted Imaging With Gadoxetic Acid–Enhanced Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Combination of Variable Density Sampling and Compressed Sensing
    imageObjectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of free-breathing dynamic T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) using Cartesian sampling, compressed sensing, and iterative reconstruction in gadoxetic acid–enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 51 patients at high risk of breath-holding failure underwent dynamic T1WI in a free-breathing manner using volumetric interpolated breath-hold (BH) examination with compressed sensing reconstruction (CS-VIBE) and hard gating. Timing, motion artifacts, and image quality were evaluated by 4 radiologists on a 4-point scale. For patients with low image quality scores (<3) on the late arterial phase, respiratory motion-resolved (extradimension [XD]) reconstruction was additionally performed and reviewed in the same manner. In addition, in 68.6% (35/51) patients who had previously undergone liver MRI, image quality and motion artifacts on dynamic phases using CS-VIBE were compared with previous BH-T1WIs. Results: In all patients, adequate arterial-phase timing was obtained at least once. Overall image quality of free-breathing T1WI was 3.30 ± 0.59 on precontrast and 2.68 ± 0.70, 2.93 ± 0.65, and 3.30 ± 0.49 on early arterial, late arterial, and portal venous phases, respectively. In 13 patients with lower than average image quality (<3) on the late arterial phase, motion-resolved reconstructed T1WI (XD-reconstructed CS-VIBE) significantly reduced motion artifacts (P < 0.002–0.021) and improved image quality (P < 0.0001–0.002). In comparison with previous BH-T1WI, CS-VIBE with hard gating or XD reconstruction showed less motion artifacts and better image quality on precontrast, arterial, and portal venous phases (P < 0.0001–0.013). Conclusions: Volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination with compressed sensing has the potential to provide consistent, motion-corrected free-breathing dynamic T1WI for liver MRI in patients at high risk of breath-holding failure.



  9. Mapping an Extended Neurochemical Profile at 3 and 7 T Using Accelerated High-Resolution Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging
    imageObjectives: The aim of this study was to compare high-resolution free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (FID-MRSI) at 3 T and 7 T in the brain of healthy subjects and to showcase the clinical potential of accelerated FID-MRSI at 7 T in 2 brain tumor cases. Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board–approved study, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men/2 women; age: 31 ± 6 years) were measured at 3 T and 7 T (Trio and 7T-Magnetom; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) and 2 patients (a 38-year-old man and a 37-year-old man), 1 with an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (grade III) and 1 with a low-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma), were measured at 7 T. Free induction decay MR spectroscopic imaging with 3.4 × 3.4 mm2 in-plane resolution was acquired in 30 minutes/6 minutes (nonaccelerated/accelerated) at both field strengths. In addition, single-slice or multi-slice FID-MRSI at 7 T was measured in the 2 tumor patients at 7 T within 6 minutes/13.3 minutes. Signal-to-noise ratio, Cramer-Rao lower bounds, and parallel imaging efficiency were assessed. High-resolution maps were created for 9 different brain metabolites. Results: At 7 T, 7 of 9 metabolites were reliably mapped over the whole slice but only 3 at 3 T. Parallel imaging efficiency was significantly improved at 7 T. Signal-to-noise ratios were +75%/+66% (P < 0.05) for N-acetylaspartate and +97%/+74%(P < 0.05) for glutamine + glutamate [Glx], and full-widths at half maximum were +112%/+109%(P < 0.05) higher at 7 T than at 3 T (nonaccelerated/accelerated) for N-acetylaspartate. Cramer-Rao lower bounds were more than double at 3 T (P < 0.05). Conclusions: At 7 T, FID-MRSI allowed the assessment of an extended neurochemical profile and yielded better metabolic maps in only approximately 6 minutes at 7 T than in approximately 30 minutes at 3 T. We found several potentially therapy-relevant neurochemical alterations in brain tumors that highlighted the potential of fast clinical FID-MRSI at 7 T.



  10. Application of High-Speed T1 Sequences for High-Quality Hepatic Arterial Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Intraindividual Comparison of Single and Multiple Arterial Phases
    imagePurpose: The aim of this study was to compare intraindividual single and multiple arterial phase acquisitions and evaluate which acquisition method was more advantageous for obtaining high-quality hepatic arterial phase in gadoxetic acid–enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients who underwent gadoxetic acid–enhanced liver MRIs and had all 3 kinds of acquisitions (single, dual, and triple arterial phases) were retrospectively included. For hepatic arterial phase imaging, controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA) with or without time-resolved imaging with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) was used. The adequacy of optimal hepatic arterial timing was assessed and respiratory motion artifacts were rated using a 5-point scale, with the highest score indicating the worst image quality. Optimal timing and respiratory motion artifacts among 3 different acquisitions were compared using Fisher exact test and repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with multiple comparisons. Results: Optimal timing of hepatic arterial phase was observed in 89.6% (60/67) of single arterial phase acquisitions and 98.5% (66/67) of both dual and triple arterial phase acquisitions (P = 0.015). Respiratory motion artifact was significantly lower in single and dual arterial acquisitions than in triple arterial acquisition (mean score, 1.70 vs 1.90 vs 2.49; P < 0.001), although there was no significant difference between single and dual arterial acquisitions (P = 0.091). Conclusions: A 15-second breath-hold dual arterial phase acquisition during gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI reliably offers well-timed hepatic arterial phase with less respiratory motion artifact. However, a 13-second breath-hold single arterial phase acquisition was most effective in reducing respiratory motion artifact.


  11. SyMRI of the Brain: Rapid Quantification of Relaxation Rates and Proton Density, With Synthetic MRI, Automatic Brain Segmentation, and Myelin Measurement
    imageAbstract: Conventional magnetic resonance images are usually evaluated using the image signal contrast between tissues and not based on their absolute signal intensities. Quantification of tissue parameters, such as relaxation rates and proton density, would provide an absolute scale; however, these methods have mainly been performed in a research setting. The development of rapid quantification, with scan times in the order of 6 minutes for full head coverage, has provided the prerequisites for clinical use. The aim of this review article was to introduce a specific quantification method and synthesis of contrast-weighted images based on the acquired absolute values, and to present automatic segmentation of brain tissues and measurement of myelin based on the quantitative values, along with application of these techniques to various brain diseases. The entire technique is referred to as “SyMRI” in this review. SyMRI has shown promising results in previous studies when used for multiple sclerosis, brain metastases, Sturge-Weber syndrome, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, meningitis, and postmortem imaging.



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